When the atoms in the pre-planet-particle form molecules, rapidly changing into a compact sphere, some of the atoms are left behind. They form light gases of different elements in a large shell around the compact rocky sphere. Then when the ice layer forms, it traps the gases and a lot of steam between the ice layer and the surface of the rocky body. The atoms outside of the ice layer drift off and later get scrubbed by the solar winds.
The steam eventually cools down and condenses into water that collects in depressions on the surface of the rocky sphere.
The gases form an atmosphere for the planet.
For example, consider Mars. Its ice layer was eroded by the solar winds since it did not have a protective magnetosphere. However, part of its atmosphere still remains, as pictured above, and contains water-ice clouds. Also, the exploration of Mars has revealed that it had water on its surface in the past. It most likely still has water in its Moho-like layer between the crust and mantle.
The heat generated by the formation of molecules and reduction of space between atoms causes the new planet to give off steam.
The steam rises, hits cold space and freezes.
“What?” you say; frozen water surrounding a planet? If that were so certainly you would have known about it already, right?
All the evidence points to a Killer Crash between two new planets between Mars and Jupiter, one fully formed, the other just beginning. The debris from this crash has done a good job of hiding the existing ice layers.
The inner planets have all lost their ice layers, but, the other planets still have theirs. The ice layer of Mercury melted, being so close to the Sun, but ice is present in the polar craters. The ice layers of Venus and Mars have been eroded by solar winds. Mars still has a significant amount of water-ice clouds in its atmosphere due to what remains from its ice layer. Geological events led to conditions that destabilized Earth’s ice layer, causing it to rapidly melt; this development is covered in the Continental Cataclysm book series.
Jupiter and Saturn are covered by debris from the Killer Crash, so that we do not directly see their respective ice layers. Most likely, Uranus and Neptune also have a thin covering of gaseous debris from the Killer Crash. So, their ice layers are hidden.
The JUNO space probe is scheduled to arrive at Jupiter in 2016. I don’t know if it is capable to penetrate the outer gaseous layers to see the ice layer underneath or not. In the meantime, the infrared image of Jupiter featured in this post indicates the ice layer under the debris layer.
The rapid formation of molecules and minerals in combination with gravity results in rapid compacting of material around the iron atoms, forming a spherical shape. The iron atoms at the center of the rocky sphere become a solid core.
The heat from this phenomenon:
- melts the outer shell of metal around the central core
- melts the rocky material around the liquid metal
- creates steam between layers
- creates steam that rises from the planet as a whole
The iron atoms in the nucleus of a protoplanet had microscopic magnetic domains (a known property of iron). Given the low temperature of the Vortex gases and protoplanets, these domains would line up in a single direction to make a big magnetic field (known physics for iron with a temperature less than the Curie temperature). Then, when the protoplanet starts to spin, the magnetic domains move. This causes the magnetic field to vary in such a way that it produces an electric field. [A changing magnetic field produces a changing electric field and a changing electric field produces a magnetic field according to known physics: Maxwell’s Equations]. The electric field is experienced by the non-metal atoms around the magnetic material in the central area.
Craters at the north and south pole of a planet provide evidence of how the layers of a planet form in the presence of an electric field. (Pictures are offered in the book, The Birth of the Earth, of craters on Mercury, Mars, and Neptune.)
The new electric field causes atoms to line up in a way that overcomes the forces keeping them apart. They bond to form molecules. This rapidly reduces the space between atoms by 10^9. This rapid formation of molecules and minerals in combination with gravity results in rapid compacting of material around the iron atoms. This causes the iron atoms to compact around the center also. A lot of heat is generated in this process.
The layered Earth as we know it reflects the results that we would expect from this process.
Did you know that granite has a higher melting point than the rock in the mantle below? But according to the current standard theory (Sun First Theory), granite is supposed to result from the cooling off period after the whole protoplanet was a hot melted sphere from collisions of rocky objects.
The givens of Mass Vortex Theory are: a nebula (or part of a nebula), 10 big pockets of iron atoms (iron and other metal atoms), and a black hole. Atoms from the nebula pack in more densely around the pockets of metal atoms. We’ll call these dense regions protoplanets. When the black hole becomes present, it acts like a big sink-hole. The nebula starts to go down the drain which creates a kind of whirling vortex.
At some point, a protoplanet has too much mass and momentum to remain in the curved path of the Parent Vortex, and it moves radially out of the Vortex (as covered in a previous post). Like a baseball pitcher using his fingers to spin a baseball, the streaming gases of the Vortex act like fingers around the protoplanet to spin it as it exits the Parent Vortex. Thus, the protoplanet transitions into an orbit around the Vortex’s center-of-mass with spin.
The further away a planet is from the center singularity, the less curvature the Vortex has. With less curvature, the pinwheel arm of the Vortex has more time to drag the planet and create a faster spin. This effect is the reason that planets further away from the center of the Solar System spin more quickly.
You can participate in Astrophysics research into high-energy cosmic rays by participating in the CRAYFIS project via your smartphone.
The CRAYFIS project is a collaborative effort by scientists from University of California Irvine, Univ. of Calif. Davis, New York Univ, Yandex School of Data Analysis and others. It aims to get broad participation of smartphone users to install their app to collect data.
The camera of the smartphone is the collector. “The CRAYFIS app operates in a manner similar to a screensaver. When the phone is connected to a power source and the screen goes to sleep, the app begins data-taking. No active participation is required on the part of the user after the initial download and installation.” –crayfis.io/about
The next part in the Continental Cataclysm Series after Birth of the Earth involves taking a close look at the high-energy cosmic rays that bombard the earth.
The CRAYFIS-related academic paper [Observing Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays with Smartphones] references a particle flux on the ground (Earth’s surface) caused by particles striking Earth’s atmosphere. However, my research indicates that there are many incoming high-energy particles that go straight through the sparsely populated atmosphere to hit the surface directly. The CRAYFIS paper indicates that the particles have so much energy that they are not deflected my Earth’s magnetosphere. Ok, but there is another phenomenon, geo-effective particle showers.
You see, high-energy particles tend to travel in groups referred to as clouds. Each cloud has a macroscopic magnetic field. Depending on the orientation of the poles, the cloud can pass through Earth’s magnetosphere. A NASA scientist, Nicky Fox, published the following regarding coronal mass ejections [CMEs] from the sun, but the same phenomenon happens with inter-galactic and inter-solar-system clouds of high-energy particles.
“When these disturbances arrive at Earth, they do not always have the same effect. The factor in determining how much the Earth will be effected by a CME is the direction of the magnetic field – in particular, the north-south direction, or ‘z’ component. When the z component is positive, this corresponds to a northward field, which has little or no effect on the Earth. When the z component is negative, however, this corresponds to a southward field. When the interplanetary magnetic field is southward, it opposes the direction of the Earth’s magnetic field. In the same way that the different poles of a bar magnet attract (in contrast to like poles repelling), an interaction between the two magnetic fields will occur, allowing the energy from the solar wind to enter the Earth’s protective shield – the magnetosphere.”
When a cloud of high-energy particles has a magnetic field with poles opposite to Earth’s magnetic field, the cloud passes through. In this case, the cloud of particles is said to be “geoeffective.”
According to Doug MacDougall – Nature’s Clocks (2008) – scientists have known about high-energy particles hitting atoms in the atmosphere to produce carbon isotopes since the 1940’s. Carbon-dating is based on this. However, scientists have not paid attention to the possible fusion events that are possible from high-energy particles hitting rocks on the surface of the Earth. More on this later, with the next part of the Series: An Earth Science Scandal.
For now, consider being part of the big particle detector array that is needed to study these ultra-high energy particles. Join the first and only crowd-sourced cosmic ray detector. Observe the energies of incident particles for yourself!