When the atoms in the pre-planet-particle form molecules, rapidly changing into a compact sphere, some of the atoms are left behind. They form light gases of different elements in a large shell around the compact rocky sphere. Then when the ice layer forms, it traps the gases and a lot of steam between the ice layer and the surface of the rocky body. The atoms outside of the ice layer drift off and later get scrubbed by the solar winds.
The steam eventually cools down and condenses into water that collects in depressions on the surface of the rocky sphere.
The gases form an atmosphere for the planet.
For example, consider Mars. Its ice layer was eroded by the solar winds since it did not have a protective magnetosphere. However, part of its atmosphere still remains, as pictured above, and contains water-ice clouds. Also, the exploration of Mars has revealed that it had water on its surface in the past. It most likely still has water in its Moho-like layer between the crust and mantle.
The heat generated by the formation of molecules and reduction of space between atoms causes the new planet to give off steam.
The steam rises, hits cold space and freezes.
“What?” you say; frozen water surrounding a planet? If that were so certainly you would have known about it already, right?
All the evidence points to a Killer Crash between two new planets between Mars and Jupiter, one fully formed, the other just beginning. The debris from this crash has done a good job of hiding the existing ice layers.
The inner planets have all lost their ice layers, but, the other planets still have theirs. The ice layer of Mercury melted, being so close to the Sun, but ice is present in the polar craters. The ice layers of Venus and Mars have been eroded by solar winds. Mars still has a significant amount of water-ice clouds in its atmosphere due to what remains from its ice layer. Geological events led to conditions that destabilized Earth’s ice layer, causing it to rapidly melt; this development is covered in the Continental Cataclysm book series.
Jupiter and Saturn are covered by debris from the Killer Crash, so that we do not directly see their respective ice layers. Most likely, Uranus and Neptune also have a thin covering of gaseous debris from the Killer Crash. So, their ice layers are hidden.
The JUNO space probe is scheduled to arrive at Jupiter in 2016. I don’t know if it is capable to penetrate the outer gaseous layers to see the ice layer underneath or not. In the meantime, the infrared image of Jupiter featured in this post indicates the ice layer under the debris layer.
The rapid formation of molecules and minerals in combination with gravity results in rapid compacting of material around the iron atoms, forming a spherical shape. The iron atoms at the center of the rocky sphere become a solid core.
The heat from this phenomenon:
- melts the outer shell of metal around the central core
- melts the rocky material around the liquid metal
- creates steam between layers
- creates steam that rises from the planet as a whole
The iron atoms in the nucleus of a protoplanet had microscopic magnetic domains (a known property of iron). Given the low temperature of the Vortex gases and protoplanets, these domains would line up in a single direction to make a big magnetic field (known physics for iron with a temperature less than the Curie temperature). Then, when the protoplanet starts to spin, the magnetic domains move. This causes the magnetic field to vary in such a way that it produces an electric field. [A changing magnetic field produces a changing electric field and a changing electric field produces a magnetic field according to known physics: Maxwell’s Equations]. The electric field is experienced by the non-metal atoms around the magnetic material in the central area.
Craters at the north and south pole of a planet provide evidence of how the layers of a planet form in the presence of an electric field. (Pictures are offered in the book, The Birth of the Earth, of craters on Mercury, Mars, and Neptune.)
The new electric field causes atoms to line up in a way that overcomes the forces keeping them apart. They bond to form molecules. This rapidly reduces the space between atoms by 10^9. This rapid formation of molecules and minerals in combination with gravity results in rapid compacting of material around the iron atoms. This causes the iron atoms to compact around the center also. A lot of heat is generated in this process.
The layered Earth as we know it reflects the results that we would expect from this process.
Did you know that granite has a higher melting point than the rock in the mantle below? But according to the current standard theory (Sun First Theory), granite is supposed to result from the cooling off period after the whole protoplanet was a hot melted sphere from collisions of rocky objects.
The givens of Mass Vortex Theory are: a nebula (or part of a nebula), 10 big pockets of iron atoms (iron and other metal atoms), and a black hole. Atoms from the nebula pack in more densely around the pockets of metal atoms. We’ll call these dense regions protoplanets. When the black hole becomes present, it acts like a big sink-hole. The nebula starts to go down the drain which creates a kind of whirling vortex.
At some point, a protoplanet has too much mass and momentum to remain in the curved path of the Parent Vortex, and it moves radially out of the Vortex (as covered in a previous post). Like a baseball pitcher using his fingers to spin a baseball, the streaming gases of the Vortex act like fingers around the protoplanet to spin it as it exits the Parent Vortex. Thus, the protoplanet transitions into an orbit around the Vortex’s center-of-mass with spin.
The further away a planet is from the center singularity, the less curvature the Vortex has. With less curvature, the pinwheel arm of the Vortex has more time to drag the planet and create a faster spin. This effect is the reason that planets further away from the center of the Solar System spin more quickly.
I learned about Kepler-78b via the TV Series: NASA’s Unexplained Files, on the Science Channel. The problem is also explained on this Astronomy Picture of the Day [APOD] page for Kepler-78b: http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap131105.html.
“Even though Kepler-78b is only slightly larger than the Earth, it should not exist. … Models of planet formation predict that no planet can form in such a close orbit, and models of planet evolution predict that Kepler-78b’s orbit should decay — dooming the planet to eventually merge with its parent star.” —APOD
According to scientists, the position of Kepler-78b so close to its sun – 40 times closer than Mercury is to our sun – could not have happened if the current academic explanation for solar system formation [Sun-First Theory] is really correct. The planet [Kepler-78b] would have had to: form within its nascent sun/star, establish its orbit within this young sun, and then retain its orbit as its sun contracted into a smaller sphere.
According to Mass Vortex Theory, on the other hand, a planet can form at practically any radial distance from the center of the parent vortex. When a dense big pocket of atoms can no longer follow the curved path of the vortext due to its velocity and mass, then it exits the stream of gases comprising the parent vortex. Once it exits, then gravity and the conservation of angular momentum are the dominant rules that affect the planet’s orbit. The gravitational interaction involved is between the planet’s center of mass and the parent vortex’s center of mass (for the part of the vortex that is within the planet’s orbit). Therefore, the presence of Kepler-78b is understandable, no problem.
In Mass Vortex Theory, the sun does not become present until later in the development, after the planets are fully formed. At some point, prior to the birth of the Sun, the center of the Parent Vortex starts to luminesce as atoms follow a tight circular path. Thus, light shines from the center of the system prior to the Sun being born. The planets, however, form in darkness or semi-darkness; any light was from possible distant stars and the beginning of a glow at the center of the Parent Vortex.
*Image above was created from a picture of our sun from the Sun Dynamics Observatory [GSFC NASA] with sunspots of a known size that could be used in comparison to Earth and Kepler 78b; the image for Kepler 78b is an artist conception by Karen Teramura which I re-sized and placed in the ecliptic. Imaging of Kepler-78b from space telescopes or probes is not available.