Looking at the Center of the Milky Way Galaxy in Infrared

Credit Hubble: NASA, ESA, & D. Q. Wang (U Mass Amherst);
Credit Spitzer: NASA, JPL & S Stolovy (SSC/Caltech)

Birth of the Earth Blog

Mass Vortex Theory
Atmosphere of Mars in the News

Atmosphere of Mars in the News

“Birth of the Earth,” page 37, talks about how the atmosphere of a planet starts with the light atoms of the protoplanet that are: a) above the surface of the rocky planet and b) under the ice layer. It is further explained on page 37 that due to the lack of a magnetosphere on both Venus and Mar, the ice layer has been scrubbed away and the atmosphere eroded. The image above from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (a project of NASA) shows an X2 flare and a coronal mass ejection from the Sun which caused energetic particles to be pushed out across the solar system—a stronger, more energetic contribution to the every-day common solar winds.

The week of November 4, 2015, NASA released information to verify that they see the atmosphere of Mars being striped away by the solar winds. Here is a video from Space.com regarding Mars Atmosphere Being ‘Stripped’ By Solar Wind.

From the New York Times article on this matter:

But new readings from NASA’s Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution mission — Maven, for short — show that when Mars is hit by a solar storm, the ferocious bombardment of particles from the sun strips away the upper atmosphere much more quickly.

…The air disappears in mainly two ways. Sometimes an electron is knocked off an atom in the upper atmosphere, and then the charged atom is accelerated away by the electric and magnetic fields of the solar wind. Particles of air can also be knocked into space through collisions with incoming solar wind particles, like billiard balls.

It is nice to have this rigorous confirmation with details regarding the mechanisms for how the atmosphere-striping behavior happens at the atomic level.


Standard Theory: Sun-First Theory

Standard Theory: Sun-First Theory

National Geographic has produced a video that explains what science textbooks currently teach about how Earth and other planets in our solar system formed.


The Standard Theory explanation starts with a nebula (like Mass Vortex Theory). Then it conceives of a situation in which atoms of the nebula move towards the center of gravity—neglecting kinetic energy and overcoming coulomb forces between atoms (which are much stronger than gravity)—so that a situation called “gravitational collapse” is realized. Standard Theory posits that this leads to fusion of hydrogen in the dense ball of material around the center of gravity.

This video picks up with the Standard Theory chronology after this, after the sun formed. Thus, Standard Theory posits that the sun formed before the planets which is why I call it Sun-First Theory.

Ice Layer Traps Atmosphere and Steam

Ice Layer Traps Atmosphere and Steam

When the atoms in the pre-planet-particle form molecules, rapidly changing into a compact sphere, some of the atoms are left behind. They form light gases of different elements in a large shell around the compact rocky sphere. Then when the ice layer forms, it traps the gases and a lot of steam between the ice layer and the surface of the rocky body. The atoms outside of the ice layer drift off and later get scrubbed by the solar winds.

The steam eventually cools down and condenses into water that collects in depressions on the surface of the rocky sphere.

The gases form an atmosphere for the planet.

For example, consider Mars. Its ice layer was eroded by the solar winds since it did not have a protective magnetosphere. However, part of its atmosphere still remains, as pictured above, and contains water-ice clouds. Also, the exploration of Mars has revealed that it had water on its surface in the past. It most likely still has water in its Moho-like layer between the crust and mantle.


Steaming Hot New Planet In Cold Space: Ice Layer

Steaming Hot New Planet In Cold Space: Ice Layer

The heat generated by the formation of molecules and reduction of space between atoms causes the new planet to give off steam.

The steam rises, hits cold space and freezes.

“What?” you say; frozen water surrounding a planet? If that were so certainly you would have known about it already, right?

All the evidence points to a Killer Crash between two new planets between Mars and Jupiter, one fully formed, the other just beginning. The debris from this crash has done a good job of hiding the existing ice layers.

The inner planets have all lost their ice layers, but, the other planets still have theirs. The ice layer of Mercury melted, being so close to the Sun, but ice is present in the polar craters. The ice layers of Venus and Mars have been eroded by solar winds. Mars still has a significant amount of water-ice clouds in its atmosphere due to what remains from its ice layer. Geological events led to conditions that destabilized Earth’s ice layer, causing it to rapidly melt; this development is covered in the Continental Cataclysm book series.

Jupiter and Saturn are covered by debris from the Killer Crash, so that we do not directly see their respective ice layers. Most likely, Uranus and Neptune also have a thin covering of gaseous debris from the Killer Crash. So, their ice layers are hidden.

The JUNO space probe is scheduled to arrive at Jupiter in 2016. I don’t know if it is capable to penetrate the outer gaseous layers to see the ice layer underneath or not. In the meantime, the infrared image of Jupiter featured in this post indicates the ice layer under the debris layer.

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