Smithereens and The Asteroid Belt

Smithereens and The Asteroid Belt

Mass Vortex Theory [MVT] asserts that the Asteroid Belt in our solar system is composed of the leftover remains of a planet which the Theory calls Smithereens.

The idea that the Asteroid Belt is due to a shattered planet was embraced in the past, but it has fallen out of favor with modern scientists. The reason it is not accepted is:
a) There is not enough mass in the Asteroid Belt for a planet; only 4% the mass of Earth’s Moon
b) The material in the Asteroid Belt does not show the kind of shock effects that are expected from a planet-scale collision
c) The different chemical composition between asteroids indicates that they did not come from a common single-planet source

In this post, I would like to show why these objections do not apply to Smithereens in the context of Mass Vortex Theory. The rationale involves two key aspects of the Killer Crash.

1. Smithereens (the planet closer to Mars) was just beginning to form; it was not a fully formed planet.

2. Conservation of momentum means that the shattered pieces of Smithereens would have velocity away from the Crash site moving back towards the Parent Vortex; i.e., moving in the opposite direction of the velocity prior to impact.

(1) and (2) negate objection (c), explained as follows.

Consider the process of planet-formation set forth by Mass Vortex Theory. The protoplanet starts to spin; compaction begins. The heavier elements are at various stages of compacting [H for heavier] — forming a layer around the metal-rich iron-heart. At the same time, the iron-heart is in the beginning stages of compacting [IH for iron-heart]. Then the outer layer has the lighter molecules and steam [L+S for lighter and steam] — plus a vast shell of inert gas atoms which do not compact. Depending on when the Killer Crash happens in the formation of Smithereens, you might see some very dense basalt material [B for basalt]. The asteroids show a similar differentiation.

There is reason to believe that Mars has a lot of carbon in its mantle [justification is beyond the scope of this post], so the heterogeneity of the Parent Vortex could easily have a concentration of carbon in the atom-mist of Smithereens, a near neighbor of Mars. Carbon is the 4th most abundant element in the universe which also supports the odds that generous carbon would be present in the atom-mist of Smithereens. 75% of the asteroids in The Asteroid Belt are carbonaceous asteroids, C-Type (according to Wikipedia). Thus, C-Type asteroids match up with H-type material in the formation of Smithereens. Metal-rich M-Type asteroids match up with the IH-type material at the center of Smithereens. Silicon-related molecules make up a portion of the H-type material; silica-rich S-Type asteroids are about 17% of the asteroids in the Asteroid Belt. H-type basalt molecules are in the V-Type asteroids and these form about 6% of the asteroids present in the Belt.

Shattered pieces of Smithereens with the most compact and heaviest molecules — H-type and IH-type — are the ones which bounced away from the Crash Site with enough momentum for substantial travel. Some of the light atoms and molecules kept right on going beyond the Crash site, sheared off from the protoplanet, to form the moon Hyperion. Hyperion shows its formation from light rocky molecules compacting around gases. The Phoebe ring of Saturn is most likely composed of light material from Smithereens also. The Wikipedia article on “Asteroid_belt” says “it is thought that many of the outer asteroids may be icy;” to the extent that this is true, it puts the L+S material in the outer ring of the Asteroid Belt (furthermost from the Sun). The carbon-rich material is revealed as that which transferred momentum to Illo and then remained close to the Crash site.

Given that Smithereens had not fully solidified, the differently-composed parts of the just-forming planet shattered in a characteristic manner. This is reasonable and expected. These pieces from the collision exhibited conserved momentum in a variety of ways in keeping with the material of the shattered piece. Therefore, the different chemical composition of asteroids with their distribution actually confirm the MVT planet formation process.

(1) negates objection (b).

The shock effects expected from the breakup of a fully-formed planet would not be expected in the break-up of a just-forming planet.

(2) negates objection (a).

The majority of the mass of Smithereens transferred some momentum to Illo and changed direction to move away from the Crash site back towards the Parent Vortex. The broken-up pieces of Smithereens then joined the fast-moving flow of the Parent Vortex within 1 au of the center and blended in to it. (Although, we can wonder if maybe a big piece of Smithereens’ iron-heart accreted around Earth’s protoplanet to seed the Moon.) Why expect ALL of the shattered pieces of a planet to stay in the the region of the Asteroid Belt? If you think about it, a crash that would cause the break-up of a (partially solidified) planet should cause fragments to travel away from the crash site.

 

“The Birth of the Earth” spends attention on results from the Killer Crash going from the Crash site out towards the Kuiper Belt, the Illo side of the Crash. This post provides the balance to consider what happens on the Smithereens side of the Killer Crash.

Water on Mars

Water on Mars

Mass Vortex Theory as set forth in “The Birth of the Earth” also helps to answer the curiosity that NASA has about water on Mars.

During compaction, steam (and methane) is given off by the hot mantle and crust. Therefore, Mars has water between its crust and mantle (as explained in “The Birth of the Earth”). Also, while its ice layer was present, Mars had water vapor under the ice layer that condensed as the planet cooled. This condensation fell to the surface of the planet, and collected in depressions. Mars did not have a big basin in its crust, like Earth, so water would have been distributed over the whole surface, but, probably not deep enough to cover hills and elevated regions. Having an ice layer provided a kind of hot house effect which kept the temperature consistently more temperate across the whole planet and supported liquid water. Once Mars’ ice layer was striped away, the water both froze and started evaporating. All the surface ice eventually evaporated. However, some of the molecules in material on the surface could still retain amounts of H2O (hydrates).

News on September 28, 2015, revealed a discovery of some small amounts of salt water on Mars per the image above [image credit: JPL-CALTECH/NASA, UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA]. I believe that it will be found that this salt water is due to a chemical reaction. There are salts on Mars that could possibly react at the right temperature with an element from the atmosphere or dust (transported by surface winds) to produce small amounts of salt water.

The desire to find water on Mars is so that it could support human life for Mars pioneers. It is possible. If human drilling capacity improved so that we had the ability to drill through the crust to the water discontinuity layer below [between mantle and crust], then explorers could obtain a source to provide sufficient water.

What I am very interested to learn about is the atmosphere and surface water of Jupiter under Jupiter’s ice layer. Is there enough light getting through at the poles that vegetation is present? Also, what is it like under Saturn’s ice layer?

Atmosphere of Mars in the News

Atmosphere of Mars in the News

“Birth of the Earth,” page 37, talks about how the atmosphere of a planet starts with the light atoms of the protoplanet that are: a) above the surface of the rocky planet and b) under the ice layer. It is further explained on page 37 that due to the lack of a magnetosphere on both Venus and Mar, the ice layer has been scrubbed away and the atmosphere eroded. The image above from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (a project of NASA) shows an X2 flare and a coronal mass ejection from the Sun which caused energetic particles to be pushed out across the solar system—a stronger, more energetic contribution to the every-day common solar winds.

The week of November 4, 2015, NASA released information to verify that they see the atmosphere of Mars being striped away by the solar winds. Here is a video from Space.com regarding Mars Atmosphere Being ‘Stripped’ By Solar Wind.

From the New York Times article on this matter:

But new readings from NASA’s Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution mission — Maven, for short — show that when Mars is hit by a solar storm, the ferocious bombardment of particles from the sun strips away the upper atmosphere much more quickly.

…The air disappears in mainly two ways. Sometimes an electron is knocked off an atom in the upper atmosphere, and then the charged atom is accelerated away by the electric and magnetic fields of the solar wind. Particles of air can also be knocked into space through collisions with incoming solar wind particles, like billiard balls.

It is nice to have this rigorous confirmation with details regarding the mechanisms for how the atmosphere-striping behavior happens at the atomic level.

 

Standard Theory: Sun-First Theory

Standard Theory: Sun-First Theory

National Geographic has produced a video that explains what science textbooks currently teach about how Earth and other planets in our solar system formed.

http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/videos/the-birth-of-earth/

The Standard Theory explanation starts with a nebula (like Mass Vortex Theory). Then it conceives of a situation in which atoms of the nebula move towards the center of gravity—neglecting kinetic energy and overcoming coulomb forces between atoms (which are much stronger than gravity)—so that a situation called “gravitational collapse” is realized. Standard Theory posits that this leads to fusion of hydrogen in the dense ball of material around the center of gravity.

This video picks up with the Standard Theory chronology after this, after the sun formed. Thus, Standard Theory posits that the sun formed before the planets which is why I call it Sun-First Theory.

Ice Layer Traps Atmosphere and Steam

Ice Layer Traps Atmosphere and Steam

When the atoms in the pre-planet-particle form molecules, rapidly changing into a compact sphere, some of the atoms are left behind. They form light gases of different elements in a large shell around the compact rocky sphere. Then when the ice layer forms, it traps the gases and a lot of steam between the ice layer and the surface of the rocky body. The atoms outside of the ice layer drift off and later get scrubbed by the solar winds.

The steam eventually cools down and condenses into water that collects in depressions on the surface of the rocky sphere.

The gases form an atmosphere for the planet.

For example, consider Mars. Its ice layer was eroded by the solar winds since it did not have a protective magnetosphere. However, part of its atmosphere still remains, as pictured above, and contains water-ice clouds. Also, the exploration of Mars has revealed that it had water on its surface in the past. It most likely still has water in its Moho-like layer between the crust and mantle.

 

Steaming Hot New Planet In Cold Space: Ice Layer

Steaming Hot New Planet In Cold Space: Ice Layer

The heat generated by the formation of molecules and reduction of space between atoms causes the new planet to give off steam.

The steam rises, hits cold space and freezes.

“What?” you say; frozen water surrounding a planet? If that were so certainly you would have known about it already, right?

All the evidence points to a Killer Crash between two new planets between Mars and Jupiter, one fully formed, the other just beginning. The debris from this crash has done a good job of hiding the existing ice layers.

The inner planets have all lost their ice layers, but, the other planets still have theirs. The ice layer of Mercury melted, being so close to the Sun, but ice is present in the polar craters. The ice layers of Venus and Mars have been eroded by solar winds. Mars still has a significant amount of water-ice clouds in its atmosphere due to what remains from its ice layer. Geological events led to conditions that destabilized Earth’s ice layer, causing it to rapidly melt; this development is covered in the Continental Cataclysm book series.

Jupiter and Saturn are covered by debris from the Killer Crash, so that we do not directly see their respective ice layers. Most likely, Uranus and Neptune also have a thin covering of gaseous debris from the Killer Crash. So, their ice layers are hidden.

The JUNO space probe is scheduled to arrive at Jupiter in 2016. I don’t know if it is capable to penetrate the outer gaseous layers to see the ice layer underneath or not. In the meantime, the infrared image of Jupiter featured in this post indicates the ice layer under the debris layer.

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