The rapid formation of molecules and minerals in combination with gravity results in rapid compacting of material around the iron atoms, forming a spherical shape. The iron atoms at the center of the rocky sphere become a solid core.
The heat from this phenomenon:
- melts the outer shell of metal around the central core
- melts the rocky material around the liquid metal
- creates steam between layers
- creates steam that rises from the planet as a whole
The iron atoms in the nucleus of a protoplanet had microscopic magnetic domains (a known property of iron). Given the low temperature of the Vortex gases and protoplanets, these domains would line up in a single direction to make a big magnetic field (known physics for iron with a temperature less than the Curie temperature). Then, when the protoplanet starts to spin, the magnetic domains move. This causes the magnetic field to vary in such a way that it produces an electric field. [A changing magnetic field produces a changing electric field and a changing electric field produces a magnetic field according to known physics: Maxwell’s Equations]. The electric field is experienced by the non-metal atoms around the magnetic material in the central area.
Craters at the north and south pole of a planet provide evidence of how the layers of a planet form in the presence of an electric field. (Pictures are offered in the book, The Birth of the Earth, of craters on Mercury, Mars, and Neptune.)
The new electric field causes atoms to line up in a way that overcomes the forces keeping them apart. They bond to form molecules. This rapidly reduces the space between atoms by 10^9. This rapid formation of molecules and minerals in combination with gravity results in rapid compacting of material around the iron atoms. This causes the iron atoms to compact around the center also. A lot of heat is generated in this process.
The layered Earth as we know it reflects the results that we would expect from this process.
Did you know that granite has a higher melting point than the rock in the mantle below? But according to the current standard theory (Sun First Theory), granite is supposed to result from the cooling off period after the whole protoplanet was a hot melted sphere from collisions of rocky objects.
The givens of Mass Vortex Theory are: a nebula (or part of a nebula), 10 big pockets of iron atoms (iron and other metal atoms), and a black hole. Atoms from the nebula pack in more densely around the pockets of metal atoms. We’ll call these dense regions protoplanets. When the black hole becomes present, it acts like a big sink-hole. The nebula starts to go down the drain which creates a kind of whirling vortex.
At some point, a protoplanet has too much mass and momentum to remain in the curved path of the Parent Vortex, and it moves radially out of the Vortex (as covered in a previous post). Like a baseball pitcher using his fingers to spin a baseball, the streaming gases of the Vortex act like fingers around the protoplanet to spin it as it exits the Parent Vortex. Thus, the protoplanet transitions into an orbit around the Vortex’s center-of-mass with spin.
The further away a planet is from the center singularity, the less curvature the Vortex has. With less curvature, the pinwheel arm of the Vortex has more time to drag the planet and create a faster spin. This effect is the reason that planets further away from the center of the Solar System spin more quickly.
A previous post introduces the Parent Vortex and the initial givens for the formation of the Solar System. Each of the 10 densely populated regions of atoms around the 10 big clumps of iron atoms is a protoplanet. A protoplanet is like a big “particle” within the gaseous flow of the Parent Vortex. Each of these big particles is not necessarily spherical at this point. Gravity and rotational motion combine to create a system that separates these big “particles” from the mainstream flow. This behavior is called cyclone separation (or cyclonic separation).
I really like the explanation in Wikipedia. The article in Wikipedia provides the physics of what happens in cyclonic separation. It sets up the criteria for the case where forces balance so that a particle has no incentive to spiral inwards to the center, nor fly away from the center. This happens when the radial velocity has caused enough drag force to counter the centrifugal and buoyancy forces.
From the equations of motion, we find that “if the density of the fluid is greater than the density of the particle, the motion is (-), toward the center of rotation and if the particle is denser than the fluid, the motion is (+), away from the center.” For the 10 densely populated regions, the particle is denser than the fluid, so it moves radially away from the center of the Vortex, until it is no longer present within the Vortex flow. The protoplanet “particle,” however, retains its angular momentum and goes into orbit around the Parent Vortex’s center of mass.
Cyclone technology for vacuum cleaners works using the same physics. So validation for the physics of cyclone separation is provided every day through the fact that people find cyclone-technology vacuum cleaners efficacious for the removal of dirt, dust and allergens.
Our solar system had 10 protoplanets in its nascent vortex. It is possible that an arbitrary solar system could not have any protoplanets. Or there could be more than 10.
No protoplanets means that in the initial nebula (i.e. the portion of a nebula which birthed the system), there were no big clumps of metal atoms. This would happen if metal atoms were well-mixed within the parent cloud, or the system had a very small amount of metal atoms, i.e. the system was metal-poor. The ability for a parent vortex to have no particles explains why some stars do not have orbiting planets. Near as we can tell, Barnard’s Star is one of these; it does not have a planetary system. There is a claim by a reader (Ronald) here, Barnard’s Star: No Sign of Planets, that Barnard’s Star is a type of star that is known to be metal-poor.