Mass Vortex Theory as set forth in “The Birth of the Earth” also helps to answer the curiosity that NASA has about water on Mars.

During compaction, steam (and methane) is given off by the hot mantle and crust. Therefore, Mars has water between its crust and mantle (as explained in “The Birth of the Earth”). Also, while its ice layer was present, Mars had water vapor under the ice layer that condensed as the planet cooled. This condensation fell to the surface of the planet, and collected in depressions. Mars did not have a big basin in its crust, like Earth, so water would have been distributed over the whole surface, but, probably not deep enough to cover hills and elevated regions. Having an ice layer provided a kind of hot house effect which kept the temperature consistently more temperate across the whole planet and supported liquid water. Once Mars’ ice layer was striped away, the water both froze and started evaporating. All the surface ice eventually evaporated. However, some of the molecules in material on the surface could still retain amounts of H2O (hydrates).

News on September 28, 2015, revealed a discovery of some small amounts of salt water on Mars per the image above [image credit: JPL-CALTECH/NASA, UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA]. I believe that it will be found that this salt water is due to a chemical reaction. There are salts on Mars that could possibly react at the right temperature with an element from the atmosphere or dust (transported by surface winds) to produce small amounts of salt water.

The desire to find water on Mars is so that it could support human life for Mars pioneers. It is possible. If human drilling capacity improved so that we had the ability to drill through the crust to the water discontinuity layer below [between mantle and crust], then explorers could obtain a source to provide sufficient water.

What I am very interested to learn about is the atmosphere and surface water of Jupiter under Jupiter’s ice layer. Is there enough light getting through at the poles that vegetation is present? Also, what is it like under Saturn’s ice layer?

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